Climate adaptation in agriculture and forestry (Th√ľnen Working Paper 86):

Fruit growing and viticulture is particularly affected by climate change due to the long life of the crops. Both too high temperatures and high solar radiation during fruit development as well as extreme cold events in winter with insufficient winter hardiness are a problem. Warm winters have an equally negative effect, as failure to meet the cold requirement leads to incomplete flower development in the following spring, resulting in lower yields. Warming up earlier in the course of the year, interrupted by cold events (late frosts) also has a negative effect on the budding and flowering of fruit trees. Regional and seasonal drought can lead to restrictions in the availability of water and nutrients and make additional irrigation necessary. On the other hand, too much water in the form of regionally occurring heavy precipitation can lead to soil erosion and nutrient leaching. Of all weather events, hail leads to the highest economic losses in fruit growing, but also in other special crops such as wine, due to primary damage such as the destruction of the fruit, but also to consequential damage in the form of disease and pest infestation. In contrast, higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations can lead to higher yields in viticulture if the water and nutrient supply is optimal (Moutinho-Pereira et al., 2015).

Climate changes also have a more or less direct effect on the development and characteristics of plants as well as on pests, rodents and weeds. In greenhouse cultivation, increased pest pressure from the field is to be expected. In addition, an increased number of generations of pest insects and the increased occurrence of vectors, viroses and phytoplasmas (e.g. cicadas) must be expected in the future. The occurrence and establishment of new invasive pests due to climate change must also be expected. A major challenge for fruit and wine growing is currently the handling of the cherry vinegar fly Drosophila suzukiidar, which first appeared in Germany in 2014.

Source: (chapter 9, p. 49)