For the fodder crops, a water deficit during the vegetative phase results in lower yields, and can change the plant composition in permanent grasslands. Excess water also imposes a risk in all cases (Table 20) as grazing might not be possible and machinery access is impaired as well. If harvesting time points need to be shifted, due to excess water, this may result in a reduction of feed quality. Source:Baseline report for the 4 main EU Climate Risk Regions

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Rainfall and temperature affect the quantity and quality of the forage. Protein content is significantly and negatively correlated with the annual precipitation. Also, one can expect variation in nitrogen content if legume abundance varies.

For review, see: Dumont, B., Andueza, D., Niderkorn, V., Lüscher, A., Porqueddu, C., Picon-Cochard, C. (2015) A meta‐analysis of climate change effects on forage quality in grasslands: specificities of mountain and Mediterranean areas. Grass and Forage Science, 70, 239-254.